Contemporaries emphasized that the reason for everything – bloody orgies on the day of St. Bartholomew.

Contemporaries emphasized that the reason for everything – bloody orgies on the day of St. Bartholomew.

Henri, the third son of Antoine of Bourbon and Jeanne d’Albre, daughter of King Henry of Navarre, was born on 13 December 1553 in Poitiers, a tiny but strategically important kingdom adjacent to the Pyrenees. Henry of Navarre was destined to be a close relative of the Valois dynasty. Salic law allowed the inheritance of the throne only by the king’s closest relative in the male line of the Capetians, bypassing the sons born to the king’s daughters. Henry III, succeeded by Henry, was his cousin in the 22nd degree!

Henry II had four sons: Francis, Charles, Henry and Francois. Navarre’s chances seemed illusory. Queen Mother Catherine de ‘Medici decides to bring Henry and his mother, an Orthodox Calvinist, closer to the court. Protestants (Huguenots – "children of King Hugo" or Calvinists) in France in the XVI century were a united force. Their possessions covered most of the southwestern and southern lands of France. Many nobles and bourgeois were inclined to the teachings of John Calvin, a staunch Geneva opponent of the pope.

After the death in battle of the commander of the troops, King Antoine of Bourbon, who was forced to fight with former fellow Huguenots and the British, the situation in the country became explosive. Catherine de ‘Medici in 1562 became regent with her minor son – Charles IX (Henry II died in 1559 during a knight’s tournament). The first of a series (eight) of religious wars in France ended with the victory of the Catholics at the Battle of Dre and the signing of the Edict of Amboise in March 1563. The edict recognized freedom of conscience, but gave the Huguenots only limited opportunities to worship. The Huguenots continued to fortify fortresses, including the wealthy seaside town of La Rochelle. In August 1570, peace was signed in Saint-Germain. The Huguenots made another concession. The world did not seem to linger.

Protestant leader Admiral Gaspar de Coligny arrived in Paris, where Henry of Navarre was engaged to the king’s sister, Marguerite (Margot) of Valois. The wedding was scheduled for August 22, 1572. The wedding took place on August 18, and Huguenots arrived in the capital on the occasion of the celebrations. At the origins of Bartholomew’s Night stood Catherine de ‘Medici and the uncompromising Catholics – the Dukes of Lorraine of Giza.

On August 22, Coligny was wounded, and although King Charles IX vowed to find "culprits, instigators and instigators", the flywheel of bloody crimes spun. Parisians and zealous Catholics took an active part in the beating of the Huguenots. On August 23, Kateryna Medici decided to carry out mass murders under the pretext of preventing a conspiracy. Charles IX, after long persuasion, gave in and approved the list of "rebels"; only Conde Jr. and Henry of Navarre were "pardoned." Under the direct leadership of Heinrich Guise, the dying Coligny was thrown out of the window. Conde and Henry of Navarre were arrested, and their relatives, like hundreds of Huguenots, were systematically destroyed. About two thousand people died in Paris alone, a wave of pogroms swept across France.

Henry of Navarre and Prince Conde Jr. were soon forced to convert to Catholicism. From August 1572 to February 1576 he was https://123helpme.me/narrative-essay-topics/ an honorary hostage at court. At the first opportunity, Henry fled, renounced the Roman Church and again led the Huguenot army.

After Bartholomew’s Night, a new civil war unfolds. But "political" peacekeepers enter the arena, including Languedoc Governor Marshal Heinrich-Montmorency Dameville and Catherine de ‘Medici’s youngest son, the Duke of Alençon. In 1574, Charles IX died in agony. Contemporaries emphasized that the reason for everything – bloody orgies on the day of St. Bartholomew.

Henry III, Duke of Anjou, becomes king. He was a homosexual and therefore had no children. Henry of Navarre became the official heir to the throne.

The Catholic League, at the urging of the Giza, declared the successor to the throne of the Catholic Cardinal of Bourbon, the younger brother of Antoine of Bourbon.

The "War of the Three Henrys" began. Radicals from the Paris League were intolerant of the alliance with King Henry III, and in 1588 an uprising broke out in the capital. The monarch fled the capital. He becomes an ally of his cousin and orders the killing of the leaders of the League – Duke Henry Guise and his brother Cardinal of Lorraine. The Royal Army, together with the Huguenots, laid siege to Paris, under the walls of which the Dominican monk Jacques Clement mortally wounded Henry III. Already on his deathbed, he urged his subjects to declare his cousin the heir to the throne, demanding, in turn, from him the transition to the bosom of the Roman church.

From 1589 to 1593 the civil war lasted, although Henry IV was the only legitimate suzerain of all France. Even after defeating the League’s troops at Arca (1589) and Ivria (1590), Henry IV was a brilliant tactician, but not yet a strategist, and was unable to turn military success into political success.

Another return to the bosom of the Roman Church – the sacramental words "Paris is worthy of Mass" was said on July 25, 1593 in the Abbey of Saint-Denis – does not immediately open the doors of the capital to Henry IV. But the diplomatic talent, honed by years of battles and backstage intrigue, was very much needed by Henry IV. He occupied Paris without blood on March 21, 1594. Earlier, on February 28, in Chartres (Reims was in the hands of the League) Henri de Bourbon was finally crowned.

Over the next four years, Henry IV successively solved three extremely important tasks: he defeated the nobility of the League (mostly through negotiations and bribery), ended the "long-running" war with Spain and, most importantly, signed the Edict of Nantes … Issued on April 13, 1598, it became the king’s most important peace-making action (not just religious) in a bloodless country. According to the king, despite the opposition of the orthodox of the two camps, the peaceful coexistence of denominations is possible. The Huguenots were given the right to practice their religion freely in most cities (Paris remained a bastion of the Roman Church), but the state religion was Catholic. Until his death, the king followed the decision of the edict.

However, Henry IV did not achieve equality between Catholics and Huguenots, but only the guarantee of minority rights. Throughout the seventeenth century, the Catholic Party gradually but steadily (Cardinal Richelieu also contributed) "suppressed" the religious opposition. The nobles of the Southwest, who were the main driving force of Protestantism, increasingly abandoned Calvinism in favor of Catholicism for the sake of their careers. A similar situation was observed in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from the end of the 16th century. The vast majority of Ukrainian Orthodox magnates and nobles chose the state faith – the same Catholic or, less frequently, a compromise – Greek Catholic.

Apart from the short war with Savoy, the conspiracy of Marshal Biron and the uprising of the Duke of Boulogne (suppressed in its infancy), peace in France was not disturbed until the death of the monarch.

The authority of royal power was restored. Henry IV brilliantly entered the image of a non-partisan, imbued with the ideals of tolerance of the king, the guarantor of the revival of France. Henry IV took over the system of finance, administration and management, and was attentive to the needs of the peasants and the bourgeoisie. The king’s closest aides were talented administrators: first of all, the Duke Maximilian de Sully.

Henry IV initiated the creation of French colonies in North America and finally, a year before his death, decided to turn his attention to the main rivals in Europe – the Habsburgs. He was preparing (in connection with the war for the Jülich-Klew inheritance in 1609-1610) for a campaign against the Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs.

Henry IV’s personal life was very turbulent. In 1600, the king divorced Margot and remarried Maria Medici. She bore him sons (the first of them, Louis XIII (1601-1643), became king of France after the death of his father) and three daughters. Henry IV was attentive to the seven illegitimate legal children of the "official" mistresses, Gabrielle d’Estre, Henrietta d’Antrag, Jacqueline de Beauvais, and Charlotte de Essar. The general list of the monarch’s children is approaching 25!

King Gabriel Anoto’s biographer wrote: "This genius of reconciliation, which he was endowed with, was especially evident in his way out of religious difficulties … Everyone had to be satisfied, while yielding as little as possible and preserving the dignity and prerogatives of royal power. "

After the conquest of the kingdom, the former Huguenot general became the monarch of all the French and faithfully served the state idea, for the next 200 years determining the development of the superpower he created, which remains so today.

09/23/2012

Prerequisites for the introduction of Roosevelt’s "new course". Abstract

Hoover’s domestic policy. The inauguration of President FD Roosevelt

The modern world is multipolar and multidimensional. Human civilization is represented by a variety of state formations and varying degrees of their economic and political development. Among this diversity of states, the United States stands out favorably – a world superpower that has managed to make a qualitative leap in its development and take a worthy place among the developed countries of the world.

A significant role in the transformation of the United States into a superpower was played by the active radical activity of President FD Roosevelt, in the implementation of whose program can be traced in addition to purely economic measures to understand and apply legal deontology in practice.

After the first economic crisis (1920-1921) there was a temporary lull until 1929. In the same year, other capitalist states overcame the effects of the First World War, and at the same time the shortage of goods caused by the First World War was eliminated. Demand for goods sold by the United States on the world market has disappeared. In mid-1929, the commodity market was oversaturated, and the next economic crisis began in the United States. Subsequently, this crisis affected the entire capitalist world.

The crisis of 1929-1933 was the longest in the history of capitalism. If the crisis of 1920-1921 lasted only 9 months, the crisis of 1929-1933 lasted 44 months. The consequences of this crisis were very terrible. Almost 45 million people are below the poverty line. Between 1930 and 1932, more than 5,000 banks declared their insolvency.